Electroslag remelting esr is similar to var, but the steel is. Magnetically controlled electroslag melting of titanium alloys. Esr is a continuous process, where during the remelting of the consumable electrode, refining and solidification of the steel occur simultaneously. Electroslag remelting furnaces consarc corporation 100 indel avenue p. With the effect of electric field, magnetic field and temperature field, it is. Electroslag remelting esr is commonly used to produce the highest levels of quality in plate steels, particularly in thick plates. Electroslag remelting its status, mechanism and refining. Based on the results and a thermodynamic assessment of the formation of the nonmetallic inclusions, a mechanism for inclusion behavior during electroslag remelting has. In order to promote public education and public safety, equal justice for all, a better informed citizenry, the rule of law, world trade and world peace, this legal document is hereby made available on a noncommercial basis, as it is the right of all humans to know and speak the laws that govern them. The electroslag remelting esr process is used for the production of defectfree ingots of highperformance alloys for the manufacture of components in aerospace and land based turbines. For this purpose, the chamber electroslag remelting chesr process can be used. Electroslag remelting is a complex physicochemical reaction process. Effects of electrode immersion depth and remelting rate on electroslag remelting process song jinchun, wang changzhou and li song northeastern university, shenyang 110819, china abstract.
The electroslag remelting process esr is a special procedure in the field of metallurgy. As the drops of melting metal fall through the molten electroflux, impurities and. Electroslag remelting esr in this process, there is a slowly melting consumable electrode and a watercooled mold for solidification, as in vacuum arc remelting, but the melting is conducted under normal atmosphere and is accomplished by a thick, superheated layer of slag on top of. Properties of various grades of esr slags and electroflux products. Evaluation of the electroslag remelting process in medical. The equilibrium al content increased with increasing temperature, whereas the equilibrium ti content. Drops of the molten electrode metal pass through the slag layer to form a layer of metal underneath. The advantages of both esr and var are combined in one process. Ald is one of the leading suppliers of vacuum and inert gas melting furnace.
The electroslag flux contains by weight percent 50 to 95 fluoride compound, 0 to 45 oxide compound, 1 to 25 rare earthcontaining material, 1 to 45 potassiumcontaining material and 0 to 25 metallic. Electroslag melting is also known as electroflux melting is a process of melting and refining steel and super alloys for mission critical application. Premium grade alloys, such as those required by the aerospace, energy, medical and automotive. Happy reading electroslag technology book everyone. The prime attribute of the process which differentiates it from other hosts. Introduction medical grade of 316lc stainless steel, i. It is also used to describe three separate processes, using the principle of electroslag namely i consumable electrode metal refining and cost structure improvement process ii the semicontinuous or 11. The esr process can include a computerized melt control system that fully automates the melting process. This article provides an overview of the esr and discusses the major components and operations of the esr furnaces. The introduction of an oxidizing agent, fe3o4, feo, fe2o3, nio, moo2, coo, cu2o, cr2o3, mno, mn2o3 or mn3o4, or a combination thereof into slag in the bottom of the mold during the beginning of an electroslag remelting esr process, but after the slag is fully molten and with an a. Report of the committee on electroslag remelting and plasma arc melting, national materials advisory board, commission on sociotechnical systems, national research council 1976.
In summary, for effective electroslag remelting of superalloys to take place, the slag should have in general the following characteristics. Electro slag remelting esr is a process used for remelting and refining of steels and special alloys which are used for critical applications in aircraft, thermal and nuclear power plants, defense hardware, etc. The invention provides an electroslag welding flux that is especially useful for welding coppernickel alloys. In addition to refining in a controlled atmosphere, this process offers the possibility of additional alloying during remelting. In the case of electroslag remelted maraging steels lower. Titanium is widely used in specific applications due to its high strength, low density and good chemical stability. The second type of apparatus is one which simulates the solidification of an esr ingot but does not employ slag.
Also higher recovery of alloying elements during remelting high nitrogen high. This work aims at the suitability of electroslag process on production of high technological steels such as maraging steel, modified high speed tool steel niobium, high nitrogen, and free nitrogen has been investigated. Electro slag remelting esr ald vacuum technologies. The esr process uses the ascast alloy as a consumable electrode. Us3905804a method of decarburization of slag in the. Based on more than forty years of experience with both processes, deutsche edelstahlwerke have excellent knowhow and process engineering in place, which is optimally adapted to. Titanium production by magnesium thermal reduction in the. Numerical simulation of the protective gas electro slag remelting process and its industrial validation a. It dispenses completely with the rising and gating. Electroslag remelting esr is a consumable electode remelting process in which liquid metal droplets are refined with contact of a molten slag providing a cleaner, more uniform alloy with minimum segregation. Electro slag remelting under vacuum vesr remelting is carried out under vacuum as in var, however, using a slag. This furnace is also capable of using multiple electrodes to melt that same 150,000 kg ingot via electrode exchange into a static crucible.
Oxides are detrimental to premium quality melted alloys. Weng et al effect of ce on stainless steel performance during electroslag remelting esr metalurgija 57 2018 12, 6770 after the esr experiment, the s, o, soluble al al. In order to promote public education and public safety, equal justice for all, a better informed citizenry, the rule of law, world trade and world peace, this legal document is hereby made available on a noncommercial basis, as it is the right of all humans to. New insights into the electroslag remelting process using mathematical modeling ashish d. The key to topquality steel electroslag remelting process and superalloys the electrode is a cast ingot that dips into, and melts in, a resistanceheated molten bath of electroflux. It principle is based on the electroslag welding process. Krane is a professor of materials engineering at purdue university and a member of the purdue center for metal casting research. New insights into the electroslag remelting process using.
The nitrogen must, therefore, be supplied continuously during remelting in the form of solid nitrogenbearing additives. Computational modeling, electroslag remelting, esr, superalloy ingots. Advantageously, the flux contains by weight percent 60 to 90 fluoride compound, 5 to. Introduction this process was developed originally in the erstwhile ussr in 1930. Effect of electroslag remelting on the nonmetallic. Pid decoupling controller design for electroslag remelting. Based on more than forty years of experience with both processes, deutsche edelstahlwerke have excellent knowhow and process engineering in place, which is optimally adapted to meet their customers requirements. For this purpose, oxygen was introduced into titanium during chamber electroslag remelting by three different methods. It should be essentially non reactive with the alloy. Pdf electroslag remelting of high technological steels.
Download file book pdf electroslag technology at complete pdf library. An electroslag remelting process esr starts when the lower tip of a consumable electrode is immersed into a pool of molten slag. Index termselectroslag remelting process, multivariable system, pid controller, cuckoo search algorithm i. Due to the extremely short dwell time of the metal droplets in the liquid phase during remelting, the nitrogen pickup via the gas phase is insufficient. The alloying step can be done from both the gas phase and by adding different alloying elements in. The structural evolution and segregation in a dual alloy ingot processed by electroslag remelting yu liu 1,2, zhao zhang 1,2, guangqiang li 1,2,3, qiang wang 1,2, li wang 1,2 and baokuan li 4 1 the state key laboratory of refractories and metallurgy, wuhan university of science and technology.
This interim report describes research conducted at the massachusetts institute of technology on macrosegregation in ingots produced by the electroslag remelting esr process. Large electroslag remelting furnaces consarc has built the worlds largest single electrode static esr with a final ingot weight of 150,000 kg. Based on the technique of threephase double electrodes in series, the shortnetwork system and the structure of the 120t esr. Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of the esr process that uses a stationary. Structure modification and constant remelting speed. Patel carpenter technology, corp, 101 w bern st, reading pa 19601, usa. Esr has been known since the 1930s, but it took approx. Vacuum arc remelting var is the process of melting an electrode under vacuum by passing an electric arc between the electrode and the base of the mold and resolidifying into an ingot in a cooled mold. Vesr features o combined process var and esr o avoid hydrogen and nitrogen pick up o no moisture from slag o no oxidation of the melt o danger of white spots reduced to a minimum. The present research was aimed to solve these problems through structure modification and constant remelting speed control for a 120t electroslag remelting esr furnace. The electroslag refining process esr is a variant of the group of consumable electrode remelting processes esr, var, ebr and par for producing ingots of higher quality than that of the original material by means of controlled solidification and chemical refining. Its easy to register here to get book file pdf electroslag technology.
Investigation of the oxidation behaviour of ti and al in. The premelted slag possessing electrical conductivity is located on the watercooled mold base connected to a power supply. O improved reproducibility of the metallurgical properties. Dmitri kopeliovich electroslag welding is a welding process, in which the heat is generated by an electric current passing between the consumable electrode filler metal and the work piece through a molten slag covering the weld surface. Despite it is one of the most abundant elements in the earths crust, it is. His research is on design, development, and modeling of materials processes, particularly the. Several different refining mechanisms allow the production of metals. In the electroslag remelting process, the electrode molten state is a critical factor determining. Numerical simulation of the protective gas electro slag. Pdf electroslag remelting of high technological steels hossam. The structural evolution and segregation in a dual alloy.
An introduction to premium melting many alloys contain elements like aluminum and titanium which, when heated, react with oxygen to form oxides. Computational modeling of the electroslag remelting esr. The electroslag remelting esr process is used to remelt and refine steels and various superalloys, resulting in highquality ingots. Introduction lectroslag remelting electroslag remelting esr process is an advanced smelting method to make purified steels based on rudiment steel in order to reduce impurity and. Pdf the electroslag remelting process esr is important because it provides better control of the solidification microstructure and chemical. Esr electroslag remelting is the abbreviated name given to electroslag consumable electrode remelting and secondary refining process. It should form a smooth layer upon solidification on the mold wall to provide a good ingot surface. Effects of electrode immersion depth and remelting rate on. Bojarevics abstract series of titanium alloy remelting has been performed in an experimental electroslag setup. Electroslag remelting esr and protective gas electroslag remelting pesr. The current paper focuses on the effect of fluoride containing slag on the inclusions in electroslag ingots based on the interaction of the slagmetal interface and electroslag remelting process.527 924 1020 1577 1591 1307 485 1299 1203 1422 831 979 921 1226 922 1259 350 551 640 368 1667 1046 352 31 950 198 969 35 183 1112 57 1335 753 298 1109 901 1165 929